A computer is an electronic machine that inputs data, processes data, outputs, and stores the information. Computers are controlled by program instructions that transform the data into meaningful information. In other words, this is a device that accepts input, processes it, stores data, and produces output.

Information Processing Cycle:

Steps followed to process data:

  • Input
  • Processing
  • Output
  • Storage


Input is the information provided to the computer by a person, the environment, or another.

Examples of Input:

  • * Words and Symbols
  • * Numbers
  • * Pictures
  • * Audio signals from a microphone
  • * Signals from another computer
  • * Temperature, Speed, Pressure, etc. from sensors.


  • * Manipulation of data
  • * Data are symbols that represent raw facts, objects, and ideas that are of importance in an organization
  • * A computer program is a chain of instructions that tell it how to carry out a processing task.
  • Examples of Processing:
  • * Arithmetic calculations
  • * Drawing graphs
  • * Sorting a list


Output is the result, produced by a computer after processing the data.

The output device transmits the results after processing.

Examples of output:

  • * Image on a Monitor
  • * Printed Documents 
  • * Sound


The area of the computer that temporarily holds data that is being processed or waiting to be processed stored or output, is called Memory.


The area of the computer where data can be placed permanently while it is not required for processing is called Storage.

Examples of storage:

  • * CD-ROM (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory)
  • * Magnetic disks
  • * Flash Disks
  • * Magnetic Tapes
  • * Memory Card 
  • * Floppy Disks

Personal and home uses of computer:

  • * The people with disabilities can do normal activities.
  • * Playing Games with other people
  • * Shopping online
  • * Entertainment such as listening to music, watching videos and movies, etc.
  • * Work from home
  • * Enable communication through the use of (electronic mails) Email or Chat etc.

Business uses:

  • * It allow companies to keep a large amount of information at hand.
  • * Database
  • * Allows people to have met from different locations
  • * Makes tracking and ordering resources easier and quicker
  • * It also helps in the management of information which eases the process of decision making

Educational uses of computer:

  • * The internet allows access to thousands of online research materials
  • * Eases the process of analyzing research data
  • * Allows co-workers to communicate quickly about ongoing research

Industrial uses of computer:

These are used for Graphic Designing, Video Editing, Web Designing, etc. such as Photoshop is used to create awesome scenes with Matte Painting and to edit pictures, Illustrator and CorelDraw is used to make Logos, Banners, Business Cards, Posters, Broachers, Flexes, Birthday Cards, Social Media Posts, YouTube Thumbnails, etc.

In Dramas and Movies (Hollywood, Lollywood, Bollywood), the computers are used for video editing such as VFX software (Premiere Pro, Edius, AfterEffect, Blender, Autodesk Maya), etc. used to edit and create awesome scenes (which we can’t see in real life) for the Films and Dramas.

It is also used for Web Designing and Application Designing. 

Office uses of computer:

These are used in Schools, Offices, etc. to hold the records. Microsoft Word is used to write the reports, type the papers, note, and Microsoft Excel is used to create the Lists and Fee Challan Forms for the students and the office workers. Also used for keeping the record of each student or worker in the schools.


Its hardware consists of those electronic devices which you can see and touch.

The term “device” means any piece of hardware used by the computer, such as a Monitor, Keyboard, Modem, Mouse, etc. These are mechanical devices that build up this.

Hardware Components:

  • * Display Device (Monitor or LCD screen)
  • * System Unit
  • * CD-ROM Drive
  • * Floppy Disk Drive
  • * Hard Disk drive
  • * Keyboard 
  • * Mouse
  • Other Hardware Components:
  • * DVD Drive (Digital Versatile Disk)
  • * Sound Card and Speakers
  • * Modem (Modulate and Demodulate)
  • * Printer


A peripheral device nominates hardware components that might be added to it to increase its functionality.


  • * Printer
  • * Scanner
  • * Joystick
  • * Digital Camera


  • * Is the set of instructions that allows to many perform tasks
  • * The software is a part of the it which you can see but not touch
  • * The software is all the programming, controlling everything that the it does
  • * For any computer to function; it needs to have software installed on it


Data consists of raw facts that are manipulated and processed and converted into useful information.

Computerized data is also known as digital data because it can be reduced to digits and numbers. It reads and stores all the data as numbers.


  • * People operating the computer
  • * Tell it what to do

Essential Computer Hardware:

It’s hardware devices fall into one of the following categories:

1. Processor

2. Memory

3. Input and Output

4. Storage

Processing Devices:

  • * The procedure that converts the raw data into useful information is known as processing
  • * Processor is the brain of it.r
  • * Carries out instructions from either the software or the user
  • * Manipulate the data 
  • * Most computers have several processors
  • * The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is known as the computer’s processor

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